An interval in music is defined as the distance in pitch between two notes.
We use the word “interval” to describe in greater detail how close or how far apart two notes are from each other.
Intervals can range anywhere from unison (same note) to an octave (8th).
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Intervals on the Piano
Here is what each of these intervals look like on the piano.
Before going any further, take a moment to first get acquainted with the concept of steps and skips.
Steps and skips are very much the same idea. They are describing the distance between two notes.
However, we do need a more definite language to explain exactly how far apart two notes are.
Steps = 2nd Intervals
The steps you have learned about are now going to be renamed 2nds. How did we get this?
We count the first note as “1” and the second note as “2”. The distance between the two notes is a second.
Skips take a little bit more work to describe because there are a variety of skips we can encounter.
Skips = 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th Intervals
The easiest and most familiar skip you know is actually a 3rd.
Again, we figure this out by counting the first note as “1”, the next line or space as “2”, and the last note as “3”. The distance between the two notes is a third.
How to Name Intervals
To decide what an interval is, you count both notes on the music staff and all the lines and spaces in between.
You may find it helpful to use the tip of your pencil to guide you (pointing at each note, line or space) as you practice this.
- Start with the bottom note and count it as “1”.
- Count the following lines or spaces (in between the two notes) in succession as “2”, “3”, etc. until you reach the last note.
- The last note should be counted as the last number. This last number is used to describe the interval.
The only exception to this rule is when two notes are exactly the same pitch. In this case, we would say the interval is unison.
Something else to note is that an 8th interval can also be called an octave.
The even-numbered intervals always appear on the staff as one space note and one-line note.
This includes all 2nds, 4ths, 6ths, and octaves (8ths). Isn’t that interesting?
The odd-numbered intervals always appear on the staff as two-line notes or two space notes.
Unisons, 3rds, 5ths, and 7ths are what this all includes.
Not to confuse you here, but intervals can also be described by whether they sound together or apart.
A melodic interval involves two notes that sound separately. In other words, you play each note one at a time.
I like to think of this as being similar to a melody line. The melody “Happy Birthday” uses notes that are played separately, never together.
When two notes sound together, they are called harmonic intervals. The word “harmonic” is similar to “harmony”. This is exactly how I like to think of this.
Harmony is hearing how two or more notes blend together. Each note must be played together (kind of like a chord) in order for this to happen.
Why Bother With All of This?
Knowing what an interval in music gives us a more effective language to communicate with.
It is a way of describing exactly what we are looking at on the page. This terminology has a standard use across the world.
Anywhere you go, you should be able to now talk about intervals well with a full understanding of each other.
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